Piggy Bank of ancient values
The ancient inhabitants of Asia Minor were surprisingly productive and economic people: for several millennia they have created and accumulated so much cultural wealth that descendants need at least twice as much time to find and restore them all. But to evaluate the work of ancient builders, we can now on the monumental wreckage of ancient cities. Only on the territory of Turkey is more than a thousand ancient buildings Remains of some ancient cities can be seen without even setting such a goal. Driving along the winding mountain roads in the South and South-East of the country, we met sarcophagi thousands of years ago, standing right by the road. Some monuments of ancient history and architecture are still not found or are under excavation, which inspires the exploits of adventurers and treasure. Thanks to people who believed in incredible legends and writings, thousands of years later from the ground again rose the ancient city — and humanity learned about the wonders of the ancient world. Aspendos. Look for the woman, the Legend. King aspend Had a beautiful daughter Semiramis (according to another version her name was Belkis). Two architects wanted to marry her, and the king decided to give his daughter for the one who will build the most useful building for the city. One candidate built a theater, the other an aqueduct. Both buildings liked the king, and he offered his rivals to divide his daughter in half. The Creator of the aqueduct agreed, and his opponent refused the Princess in favor of the opponent, and thus touched the heart of the king — the monarch appreciated the generosity of the founder of the theater and gave his daughter his wife. The architectural Museum Aspendos, built in the XII century BC, can only be called a city conditionally. In just a few centuries, Aspendos, which printed its own silver coins, which was part of the Roman Empire and was famous for its horses, fell into decay. The reason for this (as in many ancient cities) was the drainage of the river on which Aspendos was located. Well-preserved to the present day there are only two buildings — an aqueduct and a theater. Created by the Romans the conduit once delivered water from a source located 20 kilometers from the city, and now serves as a gate at the entrance to the ancient city. Through its stone arches you can see private houses with orange gardens and souvenir stalls. Next to them hang colorful trinkets and Turkish clothes, in particular, wide trousers in a flower, which are so fond of wearing local women. “They are very comfortable, — explains the guide, — unlike the skirt, they are not bullied and well ventilated on a hot day.” While we were photographing orange trees and wondering whether to invest in one or two pairs of trousers, the aqueduct parked the bus with the Germans, because of which the competition in photographing the aqueduct instantly increased several times. However, after five minutes, tourists just as smartly loaded into his bus and went on a tour of the ancient theater. Aspendos theatre, created by a local architect in the II century BC, has been preserved better than other buildings in Turkey largely thanks to the Seljuks. They used it as a caravanserai (Inn, which gave refuge to merchant caravans. — Primas’. author), and therefore strongly protected. The building is designed for 20 thousand places — modern scientists have estimated at the rate of 40 cm per person. The theater has amazing acoustics: the words spoken softly on the stage are clearly heard on the top rows, so there are still dance and Opera performances, festivals and the legend of Semiramis continues to live. World. Another homeland of Santa Claus is a Legend. Through the World often sailed ships that carried grain from Egypt. When the inhabitants of the city were starving because of the failed harvest, Saint Nicholas asked the captain of one of the transit ships to leave them a part of the grain. The captain went to meet the Saint, and when he reached his destination, he found that the amount of grain in his barns remained the same as before. The origin of the name of the World is attributed to the resin for the manufacture of incense — myrrh. In tourist guides, this town can often be seen in tandem with Demre — a modern center, on the territory of which there is a Church of St. Nicholas. It was built in the IV century on the ruins of the temple of Artemis in honor of Nicholas, who was a local Bishop. After 300 years, the temple was destroyed by the Arabs, under Emperor Constantine IX it was restored, and then rebuilt many times, expanded and reconstructed. Pilgrims come here to find themselves next to the sarcophagus, where the imperishable relics of the Saint were kept before they were transported to the Italian city of Bari. Behind the turnstile turn left, at the entrance to the Church again to the left — and you will run into a lattice door, which for 10 years hangs a castle. Behind it, slowly but surely is the restoration of ancient frescoes, there is also a sarcophagus, in which (though, as much in history, it is not proven 100 percent) was buried St. Nicholas. Among the believers it is customary to read a prayer over the tomb and apply icons to it, which are thus charged with healing energy. At the entrance to the temple there is a brisk trade of freshly squeezed orange juice, amulets and tiny convolutions with the Holy land (funds, as indicated on a nearby sign, will go to the restoration of the Church). Do not rush to buy icons in the temple — the largest selection of images of different sizes and quality you will find almost opposite the Church, in the shop St. Nicholas. And its vitamin supply is better to replenish two kilometers from Demre, where the orange gardens are buried in the ruins of the ancient city of the World. Under the orange tree there is a table, stacks of plastic cups and a peasant who squeezes the juice from the oranges plucked here. Around grows a grove of citrus trees, in the shade of which are trestles, covered with colorful carpets, and a stall. Here you can enjoy hookah, drinks and snacks. In the hottest days this Paradise “filters out” tourists — only the most persistent reach the historical ruins heated by the sun. The city welcomes us with sarcophagi, lonely standing under the shadow of the same citrus, stacked piles of bas-reliefs depicting theatrical masks, ubiquitous lizards and grazing at the entrance to the ancient theater domestic goats. From the height of all this watching gaping in the rock Lycian tombs. The ancients believed that the higher a person was buried, the closer he would be to heaven in the afterlife. They tried their best: the facades of some rock burials are decorated with columns, stylized wood or painted. If it were not for our guide, for all this beauty, we probably would have missed one nondescript statue of the goddess of Fortune on the path separating the upper and lower rows of the theater. There is a legend that without the head, without hands and almost without legs, polished by thousands of touches, it, nevertheless, will execute any your desire if you gently stroke it. Phaselis. The city, protected by God, a Legend. According to the Hellenic legend, the Peninsula on which the city of Phaselis is located, the colonists from Rhodes bought from a local shepherd for a few dried fish. Ancient stories of Phaselis remind the Russian fairy tale about the rivers of milk and milk and honey. According to one version of the city of Termessos, located at an altitude of 900 meters, on the channels hollowed out in the mountains, wine and olive oil flowed into Phaselis. They filled amphorae and sent to different countries in the Mediterranean sea. These miracles are easy to believe, given that the city, which was founded around the IV century BC. E., there were Roman baths with Underfloor heating system. The Phoenicians, who actively traded with Phaselis, called it “the city protected by God”. They apparently had no idea about the regular invasions of this area hordes of mosquitoes and wild wasps. However, except for these minor troubles, the city flourished. First, it was perfectly suited for the creation of a port and shipyard, because it was located on a Peninsula surrounded by three beautiful estuaries (in 333 BC in the city for the winter stayed Alexander the Great himself with the army). Second, thanks to all the same sea faselis actively engaged in trade, in particular pink essence, which is produced in large quantities. For tourists Phaselis starts with several stalls selling chocolates and soft drinks, and from the stand, which shows a map of the city. On weekdays, people here a little rest here mostly local, coming here for picnics.
Kaunos. Caretta is a Legend. Miletos twins were born a son Kaunos and daughter Byblis. When they grew up, she liked a brother and wrote him a letter in which he told about his feelings. Kaunos got angry and decided to leave. After a long ordeal, he and his friends founded the city and called it his name. Baylis, on hearing this, threw himself off a cliff. The nymphs turned her into a spring and her tears into a river and a waterfall. Kaunos begins with a walk along the Dalyan river. Already from the pier on the opposite Bank is visible necropolis — the city of the dead in the form of hollowed out in the rock tombs resembling palaces. Traditional cultural and educational program usually includes a visit to the Turtle beach, where every year for the mating season in search of a pair of turtles swim Caretta-Caretta. Few are honored to see the giant reptiles, but we were lucky enough to see several times the shell and bald head above the water. And quite unexpectedly we found a turtle a couple carousing in the Bay at the pier, where there are mud baths and thermal waters. Dalyan often bends, opening up new beauties at every turn. After one of these bends, our boat stops, we set foot on the ground and among the flowering trees, bright flowers and fragrant herbs begin a smooth climb up. After 10 minutes we are at the entrance to Kaunos — a city with a thousand years of history. For 40 years there are archaeological excavations that have shown that the settlement was founded about three thousand years ago. In ancient times, it was of great importance as a port, in the Harbor even found a pillar, covered with the rules of trade in the city. As a result of excavations on the site of the ancient settlement were also found items that belong to the ancient, medieval, Roman and Byzantine periods. No less varied was the religious life of the port. While each city chose one God as its patron, several were worshipped in Kaunos and a temple was built in honor of each. After many years of prosperity, the city was hit by misfortunes one after another: the port was flooded and, as a result, an epidemic of malaria began, and a strong earthquake finally drove out of Kaunos those who had not yet had time to leave it. Tourists in the city — a rare phenomenon. Between the ruins we met only a trio of self-grazing cows, a sheep flock driven by a shepherd, and a Turk selling orange juice in an ancient theater, standing under a lonely tree. Many tourists are limited to walks along the river and views of the rock tombs, although Kaunos deserves special attention. There are remains of standing in circles columns, theater and Acropolis on a high hill. From any point of the city overlooking the Harbor, where three thousand years ago moored ancient ships. Olympos. Tree house Legend. On mount Olympos lived a three-faced monster Chimera. It sowed fear around: burned fields, villages and people. To kill a monster came from the Corinthian hero Bellerophon. One day he met a winged Pegasus who did not let anyone near him. The young man went to the predictor and received his advice to pray in the temple of Athens. Hero listened to the Oracle and received from goddess Athena ceasing, with the help which pacified Pegasus. Bellerophon found the dragon, threw a steel spear at him and killed him. Scientists believe that the word “olympos” means “mountain” — in Turkey there are dozens of peaks with this name. The one under which lies the ancient city of Olympos, today called Tahtali, and thanks to it there was a beautiful legend of Bellerophon: on the top of the hill is constantly burning natural gas, flammable from contact with the air. Rumor has it that it is a fire escaping from the mouth of the Chimera, which fell into the ground when he was killed by Bellerophon. The ancient city is located in a beautiful Bay, enclosed in the embrace of green mountains and picturesque rocks sticking out of the water. Here is the road through the sensational over the past few years Kadir’s Top Tree Houses — the so-called “tree houses”, in fact, is a settlement of hippies. It all started with a single hut, which Kadyr built for himself on a tree. As barking to live on the natural high ground was so much that the houses began to multiply at an incredible speed. The first signs of the ancient city of Olympos are found in a ten minute walk from the settlement in the trees: a fractured seekers of wealth the stone of the tomb, almost completely destroyed the theater, temple gate, built during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the ruins of Roman baths and everywhere the protruding pieces of the walls from different periods. Olympos reminiscent of the soup — it smells so fragrant Bay leaf. Huge urban areas overgrown with thick, like Strugatsky, forest, and wading through the lush bushes land turtles rustle so suddenly loud that make to sort through the thoughts of all the wild animals that are found in Turkey. After a short walk through the woods, we came to the coast, where some two thousand years ago, the pirates rampaged — one of the main reasons for the decline of Olympos. Now this picturesque Bay of Turkey is given to the power of lovers of sunbathing and active recreation on the water. Priene. All its burdens with a Legend. When Prien Was captured by the Persians, many residents tried to leave the city as soon as possible, taking with them what they could carry. And only the popular sage in the city, BIANT, walked lightly, carrying a small bag in his hand.The refugees, surprised by this unusual behavior, began to mock him and ask why he had not taken any property with him. What BIANT said the phrase that later became winged: “All my burden with you.” To see Prien From the road, you need to take a good look: the stones and marble slabs, which the city was built of in the XI century BC. E., merge with overhanging cliff and surrounded by greenery. In the middle of the IV century, the city from the coast of the Gulf of Latma moved inland, in addition to all the coast a little went to sea — so Prien was left without two beautiful harbors, which housed a small fleet. Without water developed at that time the city began to fade away. The pearl of Prien ruins is the remains of the temple consecrated to Athena Pallada. It was designed by ancient architect Pythonesses (which, incidentally, is credited with the authorship of the ancient mausoleum of maussollos at Halicarnassus, the present Bodrum), and the great commander Alexander the great was consecrated the temple in 334 BC, Now in the place where stood the sanctuary, five high columns propped up the sky. Around scattered pieces of slabs with adjusted to the millimeter frescoes and stone “gears” columns — as if someone threw a giant clock from the rock, the mechanism of which scattered on the ground. From the height of the temple we saw divided into “scraps” green fields and gardens, on the site of which two and a half thousand years ago splashed the waters of the Gulf of Latma. Prien built on the innovative system of Hippodamus in those days and therefore geometrically verified: six main streets divide it into 80 small blocks. The city is equipped with full wide roads, it seems that there are carefully prepared for the invention of the car. The simplicity of the scheme is convenient: to explore the city, we did not have to wander through the thin streets, we easily found the first theater (known for its VIP-places — standing at the arena stone chairs with lion legs), then the temple of Athena and Agora.
Ephesus. The secret knowledge of the Legend. Before sailing to Asia Minor, the Greek hero Androcles went to the Delphic Oracle for advice. He ordered the young man to settle in a place that will indicate the fish and boar. Once the Greeks landed on the shore and decided to eat fried fish. One of them knocked over the brazier why the fire growing next to the Bush. A wild boar jumped out of it, and he pointed out to the travelers the place where you want to build a city. In ancient times, Ephesus was one of the most densely populated cities in these parts, and now the situation has not changed too much. So many tourists come here that, according to scientists, over the past 10 years, the stone roads of the city were erased by almost a centimeter. We thought to blame the Italians and the Americans — they are in Ephesus very much. They unceremoniously scurry even where there are signs “No enter”, but still began to raise his feet, so as not to shuffle on the pavement. Hilt — a storehouse for scientists and aesthetes. Some buildings and bas-reliefs are perfectly preserved here and archaeological excavations are still carried out. The star of Ephesus is the library of Celsius. Inside it, except for a few inscriptions, completely empty, but its facade is stunning. At the entrance, you can freeze for a few hours with your head thrown back, looking at the lace curls above the columns. Opposite the library is a brothel. Fans of intrigue like to retell the legend that both useful buildings in the ancient period were connected by an underground passage, so that scientists could pleasantly while away the time under a pious pretext. Besides the fact that in ancient times Ephesus was the second city after Rome, later it played an important role in the spread of Christianity. Some written sources of those times indicate that the Holy mother of God and the Apostle John spent their last years here. The virgin Mary supposedly lived in a stone house on a hill, which today has become a place of world pilgrimage. “Great disappointment” called our guide one of the seven wonders of the ancient world — the temple of Artemis, which is located a few kilometers from Ephesus. We were prepared for what we saw there: a large pit, in the middle of which a single pillar was sticking out, and at its top a family of storks built a nest. Here, in the clearing, there is a brisk trade in old coins.” “Ancient coins?”a suspicious Turkish woman asked us in such a mysterious voice, as if she had just dug up a treasure and was now trying to sell it. Our guide explained that the whole village is engaged in the minting of “old” coins. The starting price in the process of active trading drops to two dollars — a symbolic fee for a souvenir in memory of one of the wonders of the ancient world.