Turkey — Turkiye Cumhurieti is a country of rare beauty and diversity, located on the border of Europe and Asia. It has an area of 779 452 sq km. the Main part of the territory of Turkey is in Asia and called Anatolia. Only 3 per cent of the country’s territory is on the European continent. Turkey is mainly a mountainous country. Plains little, they are located on the coast in the valleys of rivers. On three sides Turkey is washed by the sea: in the North — Black, in the West — Aegean and marble, in the South — Mediterranean. In the mountainous areas of Eastern Anatolia, the air temperature in winter sometimes drops to :30° C, and on the coastal plains of the Mediterranean sea — a hot subtropical marine climate, there is even grown date palm, sugar cane and bananas. The population of Turkey is about 66 million people, and it is growing rapidly. The capital of the country — Ankara, located in Central Anatolia, but the largest and most famous city in Turkey — Istanbul, once Constantinople. It lies on the banks of the Bosphorus — in Europe and Asia. Istanbul in recent years has become a huge metropolis with a population of about 15 million people. Most of Turkey’s industrial potential is concentrated here. The official language in the country is Turkish. About him is worth say in more details. It belongs to the group of Turkic languages spoken in the vast territory from the Balkan Peninsula to Eastern Siberia. The closest languages to it are Azerbaijani, Gagauz and Crimean Tatars. However, the Turkish language is interesting not so much for its roots as for its amazing ability to transform. For several centuries, the Turks used the Arabic alphabet, inconvenient for the Turkish language. In 1928, a law was passed to replace it with the Latin alphabet. The Latin alphabet is so well suited to the Turkish language that the writing of Turkish words is almost no different from the pronunciation. However, the reforms did not end there. Huge changes have taken place in the dictionary. With the victory of the national liberation movement, the process of cleansing the Turkish language of Arabic and Persian words, firmly entrenched in it for centuries under the influence of Islam, actively went on. They were replaced by the original words from other languages of the Turkic peoples. For concepts that did not exist in these languages, invented Turkish equivalents. Borrowed words from European languages, especially French. The most interesting thing is that the Turkish language did not reject these innovations, on the contrary, they organically poured into it. As a result, modern Turks practically do not understand the language spoken in Turkey in the thirties of our century. Even the name of the language has changed. It became known as Turkish, in contrast to the old Ottoman, which existed before the reforms. In Turkey — officially — live only Turks. In fact, Kurds, Arabs, Armenians, Greeks, lazes and others still live there. The very image of a typical Turk varies greatly depending on the region of the country — from blondes with blue eyes to burning brunettes with a noticeable nose. About 99 percent of the Turkish population is Muslim. But she is a secular state. It remains to add that the monetary unit of the country is the Turkish Lira, and the national holiday is the Day of the proclamation of the Republic. It is celebrated on October 29, and established in 1923.