Not absolute monarchy of the Hittites
“If the troops were defeated by the enemy, they perform the rite: dissect a man, a goat, a puppy and a pig…” About the Hittites and their Kingdom, which existed in the II Millennium BC, we know quite a lot: understand their language, traditions, way of life. But when and where they came to the Anatolian plateau – remains a mystery. In the II Millennium BC on the territory of Asia Minor there was the greatest of the kingdoms — the Hittite. To match him were only Babylonia and Egypt. It, which became one of the first examples of structured class society, stood for almost six centuries and crumbled under the swords of foreigners. Fragments of his heritage are now scattered all over the world — ceremoniously and proudly Hittites, imprinted in stone and bronze, look at visitors to museums in Germany, England, France and Turkey. Here, for example, carved in stone “Acrobats”. One of them is preparing to climb the stairs, the second stands next to the safety net, and the third seems to blow the horn, attracting the attention of passers-by. But is it true that they are acrobats? And suddenly, on that day, almost three thousand years ago, the Hittites had a great holiday, and the inspired master immortalized his heroes in a ritual action, where the staircase and the horn — not a circus props, but cult fetishes. And is it a horn? Who are the biblical Hittites? Reliability. In the Hittite heritage it is that a skillful mosaic scattered on the Anatolian plateau: the more fragments collected, the more left to collect. The Hittite language is clear — several hundred written monuments are deciphered, their world order is relatively known: the state structure, family relations, there is information about what they believed, who they prayed to, with whom they fought and were friends, how they could sculpt, draw, what they grew and what they ate for lunch. But who were their ancestors? Are they mentioned in the old Testament, the Hittites and the Hittites? From where they came to Anatolia and really defeating the Hittites flies became their heirs? A lot of questions. But even with those white spots disappeared inhabitants of the Kingdom were for the chattooga, in General, very generous: of the many hundreds of Hittite villages and towns about a dozen have already been excavated and surveyed. And this is a great success. So, Hittites. They’re nesites. The habitat area of the Anatolian plateau. Time — XVIII—XII centuries BC Form of statehood — Kingdom with “non-absolute monarchy”. Language — Indo-European. Ancestors — unknown. Ethnic homeland — unknown. The offspring — gone. If we talk about their prehistory, initially on the site of the formation of the Hittite Kingdom in the IV—III millennia BC there were more than a dozen ethnic areas. In one of them in the basin of the river Galis lived quite a large people of Hatta, thanks to which this region was called “Hatti”. For the first time under this name it is mentioned in the XXIII century BC. the Existence of the Hittite Kingdom refers to the period of 1750-1180 BC Three centuries in the history of this Kingdom — from XVIII to XVI BC — called the ancient Hittite period. It was at this time, according to many experts who came to the area of Hatti Indo-Europeans under the conditional name “Hittites” joined with the indigenous people of the Hutts. This “symbiosis” is called in science “Hittites”. What was the Hittite Kingdom at the beginning of its history? His way of life was built on the traditions of the tribal system. The Hittite kings ruled together with the so-called pankus, who United in his ranks all capable citizens. Pankus was headed by the Council — Tulia, which represented and, accordingly, defended the interests of the aristocracy, to a greater extent — members of the Royal family: the king’s brothers, his sons and other relatives. Inherited the king at first not his own son, and adopted nephew — the son of his sister. As Pincus and thulium very limited the power of the kings, on this soil between them often in disagreement, as evidenced by numerous written sources. It is noteworthy that if the king died, and the Queen experienced him, she retained the title of Queen in the reign of the new king, and the wife of the latter was called only “the wife of the king” and only after the death of the Dowager Queen acquired its status. At the end of the XVIII century BC dynasty of the first reigning family of Anitta ceded power to another Royal house. One of his kings, Labarna I (circa 1675— 1650 BC), was a great conqueror and reformer. He managed to expand the boundaries of the Hittite Kingdom “from sea to sea.” Labarna contemporaries appreciated his work: the names of the king and his wife Tamandani became the titles of all subsequent Hittite kings and Queens. His successor,the nephew of Hattusili I (circa 1650-1625 BC), continued the reformation: he moved the capital of the Kingdom to the former main center of the Hutts, Hattus, after which the state became known as the “Hittite”. Hattusili I further expanded the possession of the Hittites up to Syria. In addition to successful conquests, this king went down in history as the “instigator” of the Palace turmoil, although he, of course, did not consider himself as such. From written sources it is known that Hattusili I, ignoring traditions, removed from inheritance of the nephew. And the pretext for this he found more than convincing: nephew indifferent to the illness of his uncle. As a result of the quarrel, the king turned against himself many members of the genus, even their own children. To understand such long-standing vicissitudes is very interesting: the scribes recorded on this issue many “speeches” Hattusili I — eloquence he was not to occupy. After all the troubles, the new heir to the throne was the adopted grandson of the king — Mursili, with whom, apparently, he quickly found mutual understanding. Together they suppressed the feud and made a campaign to the South, which in the reign of Mursili I (circa 1625— 1590 BC) ended with the conquest of Babylon. The last home returned with a huge booty. But his brilliant victories rejoiced few. The Hittite nobility understood that thereby the Tsar strengthens already strong power — Mursili was killed by the husband of the sister. While the Hittite elite were engaged in the solution of internal problems, from the North to the Hittites attacked the tribes kaskow (a branch of the same Adyghe tribes of the Caucasus, famous Russian Chronicles under the name “kasogi”). They destroyed many cities of the Kingdom and cut them off from the Black sea forever. It was a great defeat, because the great Kingdom, stretching “from sea to sea”, was no longer so. Meanwhile, the nobles were gaining more and more power. It came to the point that in the time of king Telepinus (he ruled about 1530-1500 BC) Tulia has achieved the right not only to judge but also to execute the kings. And without the consent of Tullius, the king could not execute its members and take their property. But it was not only defeat Telepinu. Around 1450 BC, a successful non-Hittite dignitary seized the throne and founded a new Hittite dynasty. From this time began the so-called Novohatsky period — from the mid-fifteenth and the beginning of XII century BC, And here the king was an absolute ruler, he was appointed his successor. Thus, the Palace coups ceased to grow into a feud. The laws of the kings of the heavens and the Earth in the Hittite Empire belonged to the state. Most of it housed large farms that provided the king and members of his family. That is worked for “house of the Tsar”, “house of the Queen”, “house of the Palace” — local administration. There was also a community sector where land ownership had its roots in the pre-class era. In it, apparently, it was possible to buy and sell land. The elder of the community had quite a wide range of powers with judicial and administrative authority. Slave labour was widely used on both state and community lands. Compulsory service to the Tsar and payment of the natural tax to him was called sahhan, labor service — Luzzi. Apparently, they spread out on a large part of the population, including on the congregation. Here is a fragment of the Charter — the law regulating agricultural relations: “If someone will borrow and harness an ox, a horse, a mule or a donkey, and he will fall or be eaten by wolves, or get lost and disappear, then let the lent pay its full value; but if he says: “By the hand of God he died” – let him swear that. If the pig goes to the barn, the field or the garden, and the owner of that meadow, field or garden will beat her to death, then let him return this pig to its owner; if not return, it will become a thief…” the Main crops of the Hittites were barley and related wheat — Emmer. They were made of flour and baked bread from the grain — brewed beer. We grew grapes, planted pomegranate trees and Apple trees. That looked like the letter about the so-called conditional land ownership: “the Estate Tuatapere: 1 male, Tuatapere; 1 boy, Harmondale; 1 female, Azzie; 2 daughters, Anette and Chantavia; (total) 5; 2 oxen, 22 sheep, 6 draft oxen…;  sheep, and with them 2 flocks and two lambs; 18 goats, goats 3 goats and 1 goat; (total) 36 heads of small cattle; 1 house. The pasture for oxen — 1 acre of meadows in the city Parcella. 3 1/2 acres of vineyard, and in it 40 Apple trees, 42 pomegranate trees…” On estates Hittite division did not coincide with class. The whole population was divided into two groups: “free” — it included persons exempt from duties in favor of the state and the temple. They were members of the indigenous communities of Hittite cities. Of them were recruited by the ruling elite. The second group — “non-free” — that is, persons who were subject to state and temple exploitation. Among the “not free” producers outside the community were slaves, enslaving debtors, mercenaries, serfs of the land owners. The latter, by the way, were sometimes quite rich and had their own slaves. The Supreme power in the Hittite Kingdom was represented by the “great king” (tabarna), who was endowed with a special divinity in the new-Hittite period and was titled “Sun”. At the beginning of the XIV century BC in the heavens comes to power, the usurper of suppiluliuma I (CA. 1380-1335 B.